The reason we engage in multicultural counseling is a direct attempt to restore shalom. While shalom will never truly be reached, it is something that we should continuously strive for in order to better humanity. Sin has lead to racism and bigotry, which not only separates us from shalom, but keeps us from a true sense of community. Shalom, or the attempt to reach a true sense of shalom, impacts counseling in multiple ways. Shalom guides how we should approach counseling, and acts as an example as to what should be achieved through counseling. There are obstacles to shalom in counseling though, including classism, racism, and an ignorance of culture and cultural context.
Multicultural counseling helps us reach Shalom in three key ways. First, multicultural counseling helps us understand the views and motivations of others. When counselors are able to work with people from a variety of backgrounds, people are able to grow in their understanding of one another, as well as grow within their knowledge in other cultural groups, separate from their own. Second, multicultural views help us understand ourselves in new ways. When encountering other cultures, we are encouraged to analyze the way we do things, and the way we interact with people, which helps us grow and develop. The final way is through uniting these different cultures in their new understanding. Once people are able to understand others differently, and themselves differently, multicultural bonds can begin to form, and restore us to this sense of Shalom. This is necessary in the first place because of how far we have deviated from this idea of shalom in reference to multiculturalism. Because we have fallen so far from multicultural shalom, we must work to reclaim it, and a large part of that can be done through multicultural counseling (Plantinga, 1995).
One of the biggest threats to this multicultural shalom in the USA is the lingering effects of racism and bigotry, beginning with slavery, and going through the civil rights movement, and even into today. While racism and bigotry have evolved, both still exist, and all cultures suffer from the residual effects. In his film The Psychological Residuals of Slavery, Dr. Hardy discusses the true repercussions of slavery, and how they still, to this day, effect African Americans, and their relationships with Whites. Feelings of hostility, as well as deep feelings of shame are usually associated with the residuals of slavery. These residuals have also kept African Americans separate from many major parts of culture like television, movies, and even toys. This has lead to a great psychological trauma, as many African Americans have reported feeling like second class citizens. This is where sin has fragmented the true idea of shalom. When Whites are thought of more highly than African Americans, our true sense of Shalom has been forgotten, and the issues of sin become evident as a result (Hardy, 2008).
This not only shows an oppression of African Americans, but a lack of cultural knowledge by those who are white. Many white people do not understand the extent to which separations between white culture and black culture are made, and this is in part due to the lack of clarity around white racial identity development. When white people ignore the culture that they are taking a part of, they enable the disregard of another. Plantinga says, “To shut one’s eyes to an injustice, to look the other way, to pretend ignorance of evil - to do these things is to connive. We generally think of connivance as a case of active conspiracy, but it needn’t be and often isn’t.” While many white people do not have an understanding of their own culture, it is often by their own choice that they do not seek out an understanding (Plantinga, 1995, p. 182). This lack of understanding leads to a misunderstanding of other’s cultures, and how those cultures relate to one another. Plantinga is demonstrating that it is this kind of blind ignorance that is leading to a disruption in Shalom. While people may not be maliciously pursing racism or bigotry, the lack of knowledge of racial and cultural differences, and how those differences effect other races, leads to the subjugation of those different races (Plantinga, 1995).
Multicultural counseling tries to combat this in a very direct way. The recognition of other cultures, and the differences that come along with those cultures is imperative to the psychological empowerment of clients. It is also important for counselors, in the sense that it may bring counselors to a better understanding of their client’s issues. Once a client is able to realize what their role within their own culture is, they can better assess who they are as a person, and realize what cultural withholdings may be preventing them from a psychological shalom. Especially when working with clients from different cultures, issues associated with racial and cultural identity can be directly linked. While workplace anxiety may be a reality for most working individuals, the additional stress of racial discrimination could cause many different issues, especially in regard to diagnosing and treatment options for a client. If these issues are not addressed correctly by the counselor, a client’s wellbeing may be at risk. It is important for a counselor to understand these cultural intricacies in order to develop proper rapport with their client, and to better understand the needs that go along with a client from another culture. This understanding brings us closer to a place of shalom because we can better assess the needs of our client, and help them through the healing process in a way that takes these events into account (Ponterotto, 2010).
Justice plays a key role in this.. As Christian counselors, we have a duty to each other and to God to see that shalom be restored, and the effects of sin be minimized. If counselors are able to understand those who come from a cultural background that is different from their own, the Christian ideal of community can be better achieved. A multicultural understanding will prevent the demeaning of other races and cultures, as well as help create strong communities that embrace their diversity. This idea of justice is imperative to the pairing of multicultural counseling and the idea of shalom. Justice is the motivator that brings change that is necessary in order for shalom to occur. When justice is the mindset of the community, change will become something that is part of the culture. This change is what is necessary especially when racial conditions have become as askew as they currently are.
Sin applies to every aspect of multicultural counseling. Sin is something that we must consistently contend with as mental heath professionals, and from a Christian perspective, it must also be something that is addressed in counseling. Sin prevents this idea of shalom from manifesting in every aspect of life, and inversely, sin tarnishes every aspect of our life and separates us from shalom. When we disregard the importance of a multicultural perspective to counseling, we are in a way polluting that therapy, and further separating ourselves and our clients from the possibility of shalom (Plantinga, 1995).
Kirksey (2009) also pointed to the idea of a multicultural acceptance being much deeper than a general acceptance of different races. She shared a story of a group of students from multiple racial backgrounds coming together. The point that Dr. Kirksey was making was that, multicultural understanding seems to almost see past these racial dividers and through to a very human level of understanding. While race, and the understanding of race still remain important, true multicultural understanding seeks the individual person, instead of the surface level racial understanding. It is this deeper level of understanding that will lead us to a better version of community, as well as a greater understanding of God’s love. God called us to love others, but more importantly, to love others as he loved others. In order to have this kind of love, it is important for us to look past (but not ignore) those differences between one another that may separate us, to recognize that there is a person that God has love for, and that we should also share that love for.
The problem that we face within seeking shalom is that we can never truly escape from sin. As we are born sinful people, sin will always be something we must contend with in order to attempt to reach shalom (Plantinga, 1995). Even when presented with difficult situations, there is something great about fighting for the progression of shalom. It allows us to truly see the grace and love of God, as well as be able to experience the tools that have been laid before us to better ourselves and others. This is something that God has laid before us for a reason, and it is our duty and obligation as both Christians and counselors to attempt to restore shalom to the clients that we treat (Plantinga, 1995).
Hardy, K. V. (Producer and Director). (2008). Psychological residuals of slavery [Motion Picture]. (Available from Alexander Street Press).
Kirksey, K. (Director). (2009). Christianity and Multiculturalism: Understanding an Important Dimension of Diversity [Motion picture]. US: Microtraining Associates.
Plantinga, C. (1995). Not the way it's supposed to be: A breviary of sin. Grand Rapids, MI:Eerdmans.
Ponterotto, J. G. (2010). Handbook of multicultural counseling. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.